An investigation was made to evaluate the role ofAnethum graveolensL. (dill) leaf extract in the regulation of corticosteroid-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in female rats. In dexamethasone-treated animals (1 mg/kg for 22 days) an increase in serum concentration of insulin and glucose and in hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) was observed. However, there was a decrease in serum concentration of thyroid hormones and in the endogenous antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver. In animals treated with an equivalent amount of dexamethasone for a similar period (22 days) when received the leaf extract (100 mg/kg b.wt/d.) for last 15 days a decrease in the concentration of both serum glucose and insulin was observed, indicating the potential of the plant extract in the regulation of corticosteroid-induced diabetes. Dexamethasone-induced alterations in the levels of thyroid hormones as well as in hepatic LPO, SOD, CAT and GSH were also reversed by the plant extract. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.