Vascular dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether chronicin vivotreatment ofCrataegus microphylla(CM) extract in diabetic rats induced with streptozotocin (STZ, intraperitoneal, 65 mg/kg) preserves vascular function and to evaluate whether the reduction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), proinflammatory cytokines, and lipid peroxidation mediates its mechanisms of action. Starting at 4 weeks of diabetes,CMextract (100 mg/kg) was administrated to diabetic rats for 4 weeks. In aortic rings, relaxation to acetylcholine and vasoreactivity to noradrenaline were impaired, whereas aortic iNOS expression and plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), total nitrite-nitrate, and malondialdehite levels were increased in diabetic rats compared with controls. ChronicCMtreatment significantly corrected all the above abnormalities in diabetic rats. In comparison, pretreatment of the aorta of diabetic rats withN-[3(aminomethyl) benzyl]-acetamidine, dihydrochloride (10-5 M), a selective inhibitor of iNOS, produced a similar recovery in vascular reactivity. These results suggest that chronicin vivotreatment ofCMpreserves endothelium-dependent relaxation and vascular contraction in STZ-induced diabetes, possibly by reducing iNOS expression in the aorta and by decreasing plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and by preventing lipid peroxidation.