Ethanol Extract ofMagnolia officinalisPrevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Memory Deficiency via Its Antineuroinflammatory and Antiamyloidogenic Effects

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Abstract

Magnoliabark contains several compounds such as magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, obovatol, and other neolignan compounds. These compounds have been reported to have various beneficial effects in various diseases. There is sufficient possibility that ethanol extract ofMagnolia officinalisis more effective in amyloidogenesis via synergism of these ingredients. Neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether the ethanol extract ofM. officinalis(10 mg/ kg in 0.05% ethanol) prevents memory dysfunction and amyloidogenesis in AD mouse model by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250 μg/ kg/day for seven times) injection. We found that ethanol extract ofM. officinalisprevented LPS-induced memory deficiency as well as inhibited the LPS-induced elevation of inflammatory proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and activation of astrocytes and microglia. In particular, administration ofM. officinalisethanol extract inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis, which resulted in the inhibition of amyloid precursor protein, beta-site amyloid-precursor-protein-cleaving enzyme 1 and C99. Thus, this study shows that ethanol extract ofM. officinalisprevents LPS-induced memory impairment as well as amyloidogenesis via inhibition of neuroinflammation and suggests that ethanol extract ofM. officinalismight be a useful intervention for neuroinflammation-associated diseases such as AD.

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