Three species of the genusTrollius(Ranunculaceae) are traditionally used to treat upper respiratory tract infections, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, cold with fever, acute tympanitis, aphthae, mouth sore, hemorrhage and pain of gums, acute lymphangitis and acute periostitis. However, only a few studies support its traditional use. These are studies of the biological activity of extracts and/or compounds of selected species ofTrollius, but there are no clinical studies proving the effectiveness or possible toxic effects. Until now, the following activity of extracts and/or compounds from certain species ofTrolliusused in traditional medicine has been proven: antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and antioxidant. The review showed that flavonoids, mainly C-glycosides, were characteristic of the speciesTrollius.Furthermore, other main groups of compounds are carotenoids, organic acids, terpenes, alkaloids, sterols, lactones and carbohydrates. The essential oil mainly contains compounds from the group of benzenoids, nitrogen-containing compounds, monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids, irregular terpenes and macrocyclic epoxide. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.