As a natural traditional Chinese medicine,Galla chinensishas been widely used since ancient times for its astringency, stypticity, detoxification, and antibacterial activity. Our group has concentrated on the research about its potential of being an applicable anti-caries agent. The crude extract and some other components purified from it show remarkable efficacy on anticaries, and the most likely mechanism is proposed through specific research. For the fact that crude drugs consist of numerous compounds, and their bioactivity is a result of synergistic effects and/or antagonistic effects of several compounds, it is difficult to clarify the exact mechanism and evaluate the safety and effectiveness ofG. chinensis. This review article systematically summarizes previous findings from the following aspects: (1) inhibitory effect on oral bacteria; (2) the demineralization inhibition property; (3) the remineralization-enhancing property; and (4) stability and toxicity evaluation, and thus indicates the further research direction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.