OneSisymbrium officinale(L.) Scop. aqueous dry extract (SOE) and its polyphenolic fractions (Fb, Fc, Fd and Fe) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the oxidative mutagenicity of tert-butylhydroperoxide in the Ames test. The possible involvement of desmutagenic and/or bioantimutagenic mechanisms was evaluated by applying a three-time based protocol (pre-treatment, co-treatment and post-treatment). Furthermore, some protective antioxidant mechanisms were investigated. The total polyphenol and flavonol amount was also determined, and the fingerprint was outlined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and densitometry. SOE, Fb and Fe exhibited strong antimutagenicity against tert-butylhydroperoxide in all treatment protocols, this suggesting the involvement of both desmutagenic and bioantimutagenic mechanisms. These samples also showed antioxidant properties, including neutralization of the superoxide anion, lipid peroxidation inhibition and chelation and reduction of iron. Fb and Fe were rich in polyphenols and flavonols, so suggesting a possible role of these compounds in the antimutagenicity. Taking into account that oxidative stress is responsible for the damage of various environmental toxicants, particularly tobacco smoke, present results can support the traditional use of hedge mustard by smokers to restore the vocal cord function affected by the oxidative damage and suggest a possible application of SOE and its fractions as food supplements. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.