Copaifera ssp. produces an oil-resin that presents antiinflammatory, antitumor, antiseptic, germicidal, antifungal, and antibacterial activity. This systematic review aimed to analyze the antimicrobial action of Copaiba oil against oral pathogens, when compared to that of control substances. A search on Medline/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, EMBASE, and SCOPUS databases were performed up to March 2017. To be included, the studies needed to perform any antimicrobial activity essay, using copaiba oil and a control substance. The antimicrobial effect of each substance, in each study, was extracted. Eleven studies were included, and several copaiba species were used. All studies showed that copaiba oil, regardless of its species, presented a bactericidal and/or bacteriostatic effect in in vitro analyzes. Only one study showed that the antimicrobial effect of the Copaifera officinalis was similar to the one found in chlorhexidine. A higher risk of bias was detected in most of the included studies. The studies demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity of copaiba oil, in most cases, is lower than chlorhexidine, which is considered the gold standard. However, there is great potential against oral bacteria. Further high quality studies are warranted in order to assess the efficacy of copaiba oil on oral pathogens.