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Theaflavins and thearubigins are major pigments in black tea, and they are produced by oxidation and polymerization of flavan-3-ols (catechins) during tea fermentation. In the course of studies on the mechanism of black tea polyphenol formation, we have systematically studied peroxidase-mediated oxidation of tea catechins. Individual catechins, appropriate pairs of catechins, and the combination of selected catechins and theaflavins have been used as substrates of peroxidase. Different dimers, trimers and a tetramer are formed. This work has led to the characterization of some of the new trimers in black tea by LC/ESI-MS/MS. The proposed mechanisms for the peroxidase-mediated reaction are discussed.