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Cannabis sativa L. is an annual dioecious plant from Central Asia. Cannabinoids, flavonoids, stilbenoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and lignans are some of the secondary metabolites present in C. sativa. Earlier reviews were focused on isolation and identification of more than 480 chemical compounds; this review deals with the biosynthesis of the secondary metabolites present in this plant. Cannabinoid biosynthesis and some closely related pathways that involve the same precursors are disscused.