Bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection after vaccination of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children

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The use of Mycobacterium bovis/Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to vaccinate against tuberculosis remains controversial. The development of tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children demands specific evaluation of the risk/benefit ratio of BCG vaccination in this situation. In our institution 9 of 68 HIV-infected children vaccinated with BCG before the diagnosis of HIV infection was suspected developed vaccine-related complications: 7 of these children had a large satellite adenopathy with or without skin fistulae, whereas the other 2 had disseminated BCG infection beyond the satellite ganglion (involvement of the spleen and mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes in one case and the liver and lungs in the

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