The clinical spectrum of respiratory syncytial virus disease in The Gambia

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Abstract

Background.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a well-recognized cause of lower respiratory tract infections in early childhood in industrialized countries, but less is known about RSV infection in developing countries.

Methods.

Four outbreaks of RSV infection that occurred between 1993 and 1996 in The Gambia, West Africa, were studied. RSV was sought by immunofluorescent staining of nasopharyngeal aspirate samples among young children who presented with respiratory infections at three hospitals in the Western Region of the country.

Results.

Five hundred seventy-four children with RSV infection were identified. The median ages of children seen in 1993 through 1996 were 3, 7, 8 and 5 months, respectively. Sixty-two percent of children <6 months old were boys. Thirteen children (2.4%) had conditions considered to increase the risk of severe RSV infection. On physical examination crepitations were heard in 80% of the children admitted to hospital, whereas wheezes were heard in only 39%. Eighty (16%) children received oxygen because of hypoxemia. Nine of 255 blood cultures (3.5%) were positive: 4 Streptococcus pneumoniae; 2 Haemophilus influenzae type b; 2 Staphylococcus aureus; and 1 Enterobacter agglomerans. Thirteen children died (2.4%). During the 4 study years 90, 25, 75 and 95% of isolates typed were RSV Subgroup A, respectively.

Conclusions.

RSV is a significant cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young children in The Gambia, causing epidemics of bronchiolitis. It poses a significant burden on the health system, especially through the demand for supplementary oxygen. The clinical spectrum of RSV disease in The Gambia is similar to that seen in developed countries; concomitant bacterial infections are uncommon.

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