Clinical acceptability and immunogenicity of a pentavalent parenteral combination vaccine containing diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate antigens in two-, four- and six-month-old Chilean infants

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Abstract

Background.

In recent years additional parenteral vaccines have been recommended for routine immunization of infants in the US and elsewhere. The ability to administer multiple vaccines as a single injection without unacceptably increasing reactogenicity or decreasing immunogenicity of any component would offer many practical advantages.

Methods.

A randomized, open, controlled trial was conducted to assess the tolerance profile and immunogenicity, as well as to identify potential antigenic interferences, resulting from administration of a parenteral combination vaccine for infants. The vaccine contains diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, acellular pertussis antigens (DTaP), enhanced inactivated poliovirus (eIPV) and Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus toxoid conjugate (PRP-T). Infants (n = 711) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 5 regimens as the primary series at 2, 4 and 6 months of age, by group: (1) DTaP plus oral polio vaccine (OPV); (2) DTaP plus eIPV (separate injections); (3) DTaP-eIPV combined as a single injection; (4) DTaP-eIPV combined, plus a separate injection of PRP-T; or (5) DTaP-eIPV combined and reconstituting PRP-T, as a single injection. At 3, 5 and 7 months Groups 1, 2 and 3 received PRP-T. At 12 months all infants received a booster dose of DTaP reconstituting PRP-T as a single injection, plus a separate injection of measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. Groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 received OPV at 7 months, and all infants received OPV at 13 months. Serum immune responses were measured to the primary series at 2 and 7 months and to the booster dose at 12 and 13 months.

Results.

Reaction rates were similar among groups. In the primary series combining eIPV with DTaP decreased geometric mean titers (GMTs) to diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. In addition concomitant PRP-T (either simultaneous or combined) with DTaP-eIPV lowered anti-PRP and further decreased tetanus GMTs. Nonetheless in 100% of infants protective titers were achieved against diphtheria and tetanus (>0.01 IU/ml each) and against the poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 after eIPV (Groups 2 to 5); 99% of infants (Groups 4 and 5) had protective titers against PRP (≥ 0.15 μg/ml). After boosting with DTaP/PRP-T decreased GMTs to diphtheria and PRP antigens were observed in the groups that received DTaP and eIPV combined. Nonetheless protective titers to diphtheria, tetanus and PRP occurred consistently. In contrast concomitant PRP-T with DTaP-eIPV enhanced the pertussis GMTs.

Conclusions.

We conclude that combined DTaP, eIPV and PRP-T in a single injection is well-tolerated and elicits an acceptable immune response to each component.

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