A pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) demonstrated efficacy and safety in a large clinical trial before US licensure in 2006. The primary objective of this observational study was to assess the occurrence of intussusception (IS) among infants who received RV5 in routine use. Secondary objectives assessed the occurrence of Kawasaki disease (KD) and general safety.Methods:
We identified and followed infants with a health insurance claim for RV5 during the first 2 years of RV5 availability. Concurrent and historical cohorts receiving diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine were used as comparators; the historical DTaP cohort informed sequential monitoring boundaries for IS and KD. Medical records from potential IS and KD cases were reviewed to confirm outcomes. General safety was evaluated across a wide range of outcomes using prespecified criteria. Incidence rates for outcomes along with relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated.Results:
The 85,397 RV5 and 62,820 DTaP recipients contributed 17,433 and 12,339 person-years, resulting in 6 and 5 confirmed cases of IS, respectively, within 30 days following any dose. The relative risk of IS was 0.8 (95% confidence interval: 0.22–3.52). The number of IS or KD cases did not cross the monitoring boundaries. The general safety evaluation did not identify any specific diagnoses or patterns of diagnoses that might suggest other safety concerns.Conclusion:
RV5 was not associated with an increased risk of IS, KD, or any other recognized health outcome.