Clinical and Microbiologic Outcomes of Quinolone Prophylaxis in Children With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

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Abstract

Background:

Intensifying treatment for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has improved survival, with infections now being a leading cause of morbidity. Because quinolone prophylaxis is effective in adults with AML and in transplant populations, ciprofloxacin prophylaxis (CPx) was introduced as the standard for pediatric AML. We report here the impact of CPx in this population.

Methods:

Prevalence of fever and neutropenia, frequency and pathogen spectrum of infections, antibiotic use, supportive care and mortality before and after implementation of CPx were retrospectively compared in children with AML.

Results:

The cohort included 35 patients with de novo and 10 with relapsed AML, who together underwent 153 chemotherapy courses. Fever and neutropenia resulting in the use of empiric antibiotics occurred in 90% of chemotherapy courses (137/153); this was associated with proven bacteremia in 26%. The use of CPx did not change the incidence of febrile or infectious episodes, number of days of fever or antibiotic treatment or mortality. CPx was associated with a significant decrease in infections caused by Gram-negative rods (13.4% vs 4.7%) but a concomitant significant increase in bacteremia caused by viridans streptococci (12% vs 28%), resulting in no significant overall difference in the incidence of bacteremia between the 2 groups (35.9% vs 31.5%).

Conclusions:

CPx neither alter the incidence of overall bacteremia nor change the pattern of fever or use of supportive care. Our experience supports further investigation into the use of extended-spectrum quinolone prophylaxis during therapy for pediatric AML.

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