Safety of Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy in Children

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Abstract

Background and Objective:

Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) provides numerous benefits but may pose unique risks in children. We aimed to determine rates of OPAT antimicrobial- and intravenous access-related complications and their associations with specific antimicrobials and type of intravenous access in pediatric patients.

Methods:

Observational cohort study of patients receiving OPAT from August 2008 to May 2015 cared for by the Infectious Diseases service at a tertiary children’s hospital. Primary outcome was antimicrobial discontinuation (AD) because of OPAT-associated complications. Secondary outcomes were unplanned outpatient healthcare visits and readmissions from OPAT-associated complications.

Results:

Seven hundred and seven intravenous antimicrobials were prescribed in 540 cases. Nondevice-associated musculoskeletal infection was the most common diagnosis (39%). Ceftriaxone (30%), cefazolin (27%) and vancomycin (22%) were the most commonly used antimicrobials. Complications led to AD, ≥1 unplanned outpatient healthcare visit and ≥1 readmission in 23%, 30% and 17% of cases, respectively. Compared with use of ceftriaxone, use of oxacillin was associated with a significantly higher risk of AD because of any antimicrobial-related complication [hazard ratio (HR), 3.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–9.7) and because of hepatic transaminitis (HR, 32.8; 95% CI: 4.02–268.2). Subjects treated with intravenous clindamycin (HR, 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1–5.8) and with a peripherally inserted central catheter (HR, 2.6; 95% CI: 1.04–6.3) were more likely to have unplanned outpatient visits.

Conclusions:

Use of oxacillin during OPAT was associated with higher rate of AD. Patients treated with clindamycin and those with a peripherally inserted central catheter had higher rates of unplanned outpatient visits. Providers should strongly consider alternative treatment options when possible.

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