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Rotavirus vaccines created the opportunity to control diarrhea in children. We describe the rotavirus genotypes before and after the rotavirus vaccine introduction in Brazil.We reviewed the distribution of rotavirus genotypes in Brazil before and after vaccine introduction by searching publication.Eighty-six studies reported 6884 (15.2%) rotavirus episodes among 45,305 children. Rotavirus caused 22.4% and 11.6% of cases before and after vaccine introduction. G1P, G9P and G2P heterotypic strains were most common before and after vaccine introduction.The vaccines may have selected heterotypic strains in this highly vaccinated population.