Visceral Leishmaniasis—Optimum Treatment Options in Children

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Visceral leishmaniasis affects 200–400 thousands people annually worldwide. For last few decades, there has been a steady decline in the response to pentavalent antimonial (Sbv), the drug that has been used for treating visceral leishmaniasis for almost a century. Oral miltefosine and amphotericin B are alternative drugs being been used in the treatment of leishmaniasis in children. Liposomal amphotericin B has the advantage over conventional amphotericin B is that higher doses can be given with fewer adverse effects. Liposomal amphotericin B in combination with other drugs is the preferred treatment option globally especially in Indian subcontinent. Combination therapy with multiple drugs should undergo larger clinical trials in children as these will shorten the duration of therapy, improve compliance and decrease both toxicity and drug resistance.

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