High Incidence of Tuberculosis Infection in HIV-exposed Children Exiting an Isoniazid Preventive Therapy Trial

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Young HIV-exposed children are at high risk for TB infection. We performed QuantiFERON-TB Gold among HIV-exposed children in South Africa at enrolment and 1-year follow-up. The incidence of TB infection was high for HIV+ (11 cases per 100 child-years) and HIV-exposed uninfected children (15 cases per 100 child-years). QuantiFERON-TB Gold may identify HIV-exposed children at risk for TB disease progression.

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