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Melatonin has previously been suggested to affect hemostatic function but studies on the issue are scant. We hypothesized that, in humans, oral administration of melatonin is associated with decreased plasma levels of procoagulant hemostatic measures compared with placebo medication and that plasma melatonin concentration shows an inverse association with procoagulant measures. Forty-six healthy men (mean age 25 ± 4 yr) were randomized, single-blinded, to either 3 mg of oral melatonin (n = 25) or placebo medication (n = 21). One hour thereafter, levels of melatonin, fibrinogen, and D-dimer as well as activities of coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) and VIII (FVIII:C) were measured in plasma. Multivariate analysis of covariance and regression analysis controlled for age, body mass index, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and norepinephrine plasma level. Subjects on melatonin had significantly lower mean levels of FVIII:C (81%, 95% CI 71–92 versus 103%, 95% CI 90–119; P = 0.018) and of fibrinogen (1.92 g/L, 95% CI 1.76–2.08 versus 2.26 g/L, 95% CI 2.09–2.43; P = 0.007) than those on placebo explaining 14 and 17% of the respective variance. In all subjects, increased plasma melatonin concentration independently predicted lower levels of FVIII:C (P = 0.037) and fibrinogen (P = 0.022) explaining 9 and 11% of the respective variance. Melatonin medication and plasma concentration were not significantly associated with FVII:C and D-dimer levels. A single dose of oral melatonin was associated with lower plasma levels of procoagulant factors 60 min later. There might be a dose–response relationship between the plasma concentration of melatonin and coagulation activity.