Botulinum Toxin Type-A (BoNT-A) Injections of the Corrugator Muscles for Aesthetics and Depression?

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid


The treatment of glabellar lines with botulinum toxin type-A (BoNT-A) is a staple for aesthetic providers who specialize in facial rejuvenation. Clinical efforts are currently underway to substantiate upper facial injections (the corrugator muscles are the target muscles) of BoNT-A as an antidepression therapy. This article describes the origin of “facial feedback” by Charles Darwin nearly 150 years ago, as well as “emotional proprioception”—2 neuroanatomical concepts that help provide the scientific rationale behind the general influence facial muscles have on the emotional centers of the brain, and, specifically, how the corrugator muscles—involved with frowning—promote a gloomy mood. The journey researchers have taken to clinically qualify BoNT-A injections of the corrugator muscles—to inhibit frowning, and thereby mitigate depression—will also be highlighted so that aesthetic providers are up to date on this emerging benefit of BoNT-A.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles