Rapid actin turnover is essential for numerous actin-based processes. However, how it is precisely regulated remains poorly understood. Actin-interacting protein 1 (AIP1) has been shown to be an important factor by acting coordinately with actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin in promoting actin depolymerization, the rate-limiting factor in actin turnover. However, the molecular mechanism by which AIP1 promotes actin turnover remains largely unknown in plants. Here, we provide a demonstration that AIP1 promotes actin turnover, which is required for optimal growth of rice plants. Specific down-regulation ofOsAIP1increased the level of filamentous actin and reduced actin turnover, whereas over-expression ofOsAIP1induced fragmentation and depolymerization of actin filaments and enhanced actin turnover.In vitrobiochemical characterization showed that, although OsAIP1 alone does not affect actin dynamics, it enhances ADF-mediated actin depolymerization. It also caps the filament barbed end in the presence of ADF, but the capping activity is not required for their coordinated action. Real-time visualization of single filament dynamics showed that OsAIP1 enhanced ADF-mediated severing and dissociation of pointed end subunits. Consistent with this, the filament severing frequency and subunit off-rate were enhanced inOsAIP1over-expressors but decreased in RNAi protoplasts. Importantly, OsAIP1 acts coordinately with ADF and profilin to induce massive net actin depolymerization, indicating that AIP1 plays a major role in the turnover of actin, which is required to optimize F-actin levels in plants.