Parent and Teacher Ratings of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms: Factor Structure and Normative Data

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Abstract

Comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms includes parent and teacher questionnaires. The ADHD Rating Scale–5 was developed to incorporate changes for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM–5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study examined the fit of a correlated, 2-factor structure of ADHD (i.e., DSM–5 conceptual model) and alternative models; determined whether ADHD symptom ratings varied across teacher and child demographic characteristics; and presented normative data. Two samples were included: (a) 2,079 parents and guardians (1,131 female, 948 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for children (N = 2,079; 1,037 males, 1,042 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 10.68; SD = 3.75) and (b) 1,070 teachers (766 female, 304 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for students (N = 2,140; 1,070 males, 1,070 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 11.53; SD = 3.54) who attended kindergarten through 12th grade. The 2-factor structure was confirmed for both parent and teacher ratings and was invariant across child gender, age, informant, informant gender, and language. In general, boys were higher in symptom frequency than girls; older children were rated lower than younger children, especially for hyperactivity–impulsivity; and non-Hispanic children were rated higher than Hispanic children. Teachers also rated non-Hispanic African American children higher than non-Hispanic White, Asian, and Hispanic children. Non-Hispanic White teachers provided lower hyperactivity–impulsivity ratings than non-Hispanic, African American, and Hispanic teachers. Normative data are reported separately for parent and teacher ratings by child gender and age. The merits of using the ADHD Rating Scale–5 in a multimodal assessment protocol are discussed.

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