Calibration of the Test of Relational Reasoning

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Abstract

Relational reasoning, or the ability to discern meaningful patterns within a stream of information, is a critical cognitive ability associated with academic and professional success. Importantly, relational reasoning has been described as taking multiple forms, depending on the type of higher order relations being drawn between and among concepts. However, the reliable and valid measurement of such a multidimensional construct of relational reasoning has been elusive. The Test of Relational Reasoning (TORR) was designed to tap 4 forms of relational reasoning (i.e., analogy, anomaly, antinomy, and antithesis). In this investigation, the TORR was calibrated and scored using multidimensional item response theory in a large, representative undergraduate sample. The bifactor model was identified as the best-fitting model, and used to estimate item parameters and construct reliability. To improve the usefulness of the TORR to educators, scaled scores were also calculated and presented.

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