Learned helplessness in humans: A review and attribution-theory model

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M. E. Seligman's (1973, 1974, 1975) theory of learned helplessness (LH) and the current status of the research literature are reviewed, with a focus on 5 issues of the LH phenomenon: nature, etiology, generalization, individual differences, and alleviation. Seligman's theory is seen as inadequate to account for present data in several areas, notably etiology and generalization. A revised model of LH in humans is presented that suggests that the individual's attributions of noncontingent failure experiences predict the degree and parameters of LH. (85 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

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