The decapping enzymes DCP1 and DCP2 are components of a decapping complex that degrades mRNAs. DCP2 is the catalytic core and DCP1 is an auxiliary subunit. It has been assumed that DCP1 and DCP2 are consistently co-localized in cytoplasmic RNA granules called processing bodies (P-bodies). However, it has not been confirmed whether DCP1 and DCP2 co-localize in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we generated DCP1–green fluorescent protein (GFP) and DCP2–GFP transgenic plants that complemented dcp1 and dcp2 mutants, respectively, to see whether localization of DCP2 is identical to that of DCP1. DCP2 was present throughout the cytoplasm, whereas DCP1 formed P-body-like foci. Use of DCP1–GFP/DCP2–red fluorescent protein (RFP) or DCP1–RFP/DCP2–GFP plants showed that heat treatment induced DCP2 assembly into DCP1 foci. In contrast, cold treatment did not induce DCP2 assembly, while the number of DCP1 foci increased. These changes in DCP1 and DCP2 localization during heat and cold treatments occurred without changes in DCP1 and DCP2 protein abundance. Our results show that DCP1 and DCP2 respond differently to environmental changes, indicating that P-bodies have diverse DCP1 and DCP2 proportions depending on environmental conditions. The localization changes of DCP1 and DCP2 may explain how specific mRNAs are degraded during changes in environmental conditions.