Oxidation of Cucurbitadienol Catalyzed by CYP87D18 in the Biosynthesis of Mogrosides from Siraitia grosvenorii

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Abstract

Mogrosides, the principally bioactive compounds extracted from the fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii, are a group of glycosylated cucurbitane-type tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins that exhibit a wide range of notable biological activities and are commercially available worldwide as natural sweeteners. The biosynthesis of mogrosides involves initial cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene to the triterpenoid skeleton of cucurbitadienol, followed by a series of oxidation reactions catalyzed by Cyt P450s (P450s) and then glycosylation reactions catalyzed by UDP glycosyltransferases (UGTs). We previously reported the identification of a cucurbitadienol synthase (SgCbQ) and a mogrol C-3 hydroxyl glycosyltransferase (UGT74AC1). However, molecular characterization of further transformation of cucurbitadienol to mogrol by P450s remains unavailable. In this study, we report the successful identification of a multifunctional P450 (CYP87D18) as being involved in C-11 oxidation of cucurbitadienol. In vitro enzymatic activity assays showed that CYP87D18 catalyzed the oxidation of cucurbitadienol at C-11 to produce 11-oxo cucurbitadienol and 11-hydroxy cucurbitadienol. Furthermore, 11-oxo-24,25-epoxy cucurbitadienol as well as 11-oxo cucurbitadienol and 11-hydroxy cucurbitadienol were produced when CYP87D18 was co-expressed with SgCbQ in genetic yeast, and their structures were confirmed by liquid chromatography–solid-phase extraction–nuclear magnetic resonance–mass spectrometry coupling (LC-SPE-NMR-MS). Taken together, these results suggest a role for CYP87D18 as a multifunctional cucurbitadienol oxidase in the mogrosides pathway.

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