PREDICT: a diagnostic accuracy study of a tool for predicting mortality within one year: Who should have an advance healthcare directive?

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Abstract

Background:

CARING is a screening tool developed to identify patients who have a high likelihood of death in 1 year.

Aim:

This study sought to validate a modified CARING tool (termed PREDICT) using a population of patients presenting to the Emergency Department.

Setting/participants:

In total, 1000 patients aged over 55 years who were admitted to hospital via the Emergency Department between January and June 2009 were eligible for inclusion in this study.

Design:

Data on the six prognostic indicators comprising PREDICT were obtained retrospectively from patient records. One-year mortality data were obtained from the State Death Registry. Weights were applied to each PREDICT criterion, and its final score ranged from 0 to 44. Receiver operator characteristic analyses and diagnostic accuracy statistics were used to assess the accuracy of PREDICT in identifying 1-year mortality.

Results:

The sample comprised 976 patients with a median (interquartile range) age of 71 years (62–81 years) and a 1-year mortality of 23.4%. In total, 50% had ≥1 PREDICT criteria with a 1-year mortality of 40.4%. Receiver operator characteristic analysis gave an area under the curve of 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.83–0.89). Using a cut-off of 13 points, PREDICT had a 95.3% (95% confidence interval: 93.6–96.6) specificity and 53.9% (95% confidence interval: 47.5–60.3) sensitivity for predicting 1-year mortality. PREDICT was simpler than the CARING criteria and identified 158 patients per 1000 admitted who could benefit from advance care planning.

Conclusion:

PREDICT was successfully applied to the Australian healthcare system with findings similar to the original CARING study conducted in the United States. This tool could improve end-of-life care by identifying who should have advance care planning or an advance healthcare directive.

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