Vanilla stem rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vanillae (Fov), is the main constraint to increasing vanilla production in the major vanilla-producing countries, including Indonesia. The current study investigated the origin of Fov in Indonesia using a multigene phylogenetic approach. Nineteen Fov isolates were selected to represent Indonesia, the Comoros, Mexico and Réunion Island. The translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene and the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene phylogenies resolved the Fov isolates into three distinct clades in both phylogenetic species of the F. oxysporum species complex, indicating a polyphyletic pattern of evolution. In addition, Fov isolates from Indonesia were also polyphyletic. These results suggest that the vanilla stem rot pathogen in Indonesia has a complex origin. The implications for disease management are discussed.