Cereal cyst nematode (CCN) severely threatens wheat production in many regions of China. Cultivars susceptible to CCN are the main reason for its spread. This study was initiated to determine whether wheat cultivars conferring different resistance levels are the dominant determinants of CCN populations in the rhizospheric soil. Field experiments were conducted at two locations in Henan province, China, where high populations of Heterodera filipjevi or H. avenae have occurred, during the growing seasons of 2010/11 and 2011/12. Conventional enumeration of white female nematodes on the plant roots, reproductive factor (Rf) and a molecular diagnostic approach, PreDicta B test, a soil testing service based on a sensitive quantitative PCR technique, were used to determine the nematode populations in the rhizospheric soils of seven common wheat and durum wheat cultivars with different reactions to CCN. The resistant responses to CCN conferred by durum wheat Wascana and Wakooma and common wheat Madsen were effective against both H. filipjevi and H. avenae and resulted in significantly fewer nematodes (<5 females) on the roots, and lower Rf. Those cultivars were effective in limiting nematode propagation, resulting in fewer CCN eggs in their rhizospheric soils. Taikong 6 conferred moderate resistance (5–10 females) to both Heterodera species. Tianmin 668 only showed resistance to H. avenae. Aikang 58 and Wenmai 19 were susceptible to both CCN species, which facilitated increases in the nematode populations. These results demonstrate that the reactions to CCN of wheat genotypes have obvious impact on the propagation of nematodes.