A survey of nodulation was carried out in seven regions of Brazil and the nodulation status of 131 legume species is reported. Nodulation is reported for the first time in 46 species and six genera, representing 35% of the examined species. Two of the genera were non-nodulating: Martiodendron and Nissolia, and four nodulating: Riedeliella, Bergeronia, Goldmania. Moreover the last tribe of Mimosoideae yet to be examined for nodulation Mimoziganthus, was shown to be nodulated. The nodulation pattern is discussed in the light of the taxonomy of the family.