Plants exude a variety of substances through their roots, germinating seeds and aerial parts. Some of these released compounds seem to have an inhibitory effect against pathogens. The aim of this work was to investigate and identify antifungal proteins present in exudates from imbibed cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). The obtained exudation was analyzed in regard to specific protein activities by enzymatic or immunological assays for plant defense proteins, from 4 h to 48 h of seed imbibition. Our results show that cowpea seeds exudates present several defense related proteins characterized as β-1,3-glucanases, cystatins, vicilins and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), as well as a storage vacuole membrane α-TIP protein, since the very first hours of imbibition. These exudates also have an “in vitro” inhibitory effect on the growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli. Our results suggest that seed exudates should promote seed protection from soil pathogens.