The transformation of sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate by the rhizospheric nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 in association with wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Saratovskaya 29’) was studied. The effect produced by the A. brasilense strain on the morphological parameters of wheat in an As-polluted environment was examined. The plants were cultivated in a hydroponic system, with glass beads serving as a support for root growth. The plant-growth medium (an artificial soil solution) was deficient in P and Fe. The total initial As concentrations used were 75, 750, and 7500 μg l−1. The As compounds used contained sodium arsenate and sodium arsenite at an As(V):As(III) ratio of 1:3.6 (in terms of As) in all experiments. Inoculation of A. brasilense Sp245 led to a decrease in the overall root length and to the formation of lateral roots; both effects are possibly related to the bacteria's ability to synthesize auxins. Inoculation also changed the As(V): As(III) ratio of the plant-growth medium. In all experiments, the concentration of As(V) in the nutrient medium increased relative to the initial one and was approximately 1.5-fold higher than that in the medium of uninoculated plants. This value slightly decreased (1.6 > 1.5 > 1.4) with increasing concentration of As in the medium. Azospirillum-inoculated plants accumulated less As than did the surface-sterilized uninoculated plants. This study shows that A. brasilense Sp245 in association with wheat changes the speciation, bioavailability, and plant uptake of As.