Measure of Men’s Perceived Inexpressiveness Norms (M2PIN): Scale Development and Psychometric Properties

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Measure of Men’s Perceived Inexpressiveness Norms (M2PIN), a brief measure of men’s perceptions of social norms concerning emotional inexpressiveness. Participants were 410 men, the majority of whom were White American college students. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) provided support for a 2-factor structure corresponding to 2 subscales—M2PIN-Descriptive (assessing perceived descriptive norms) and M2PIN-Injunctive (assessing perceived injunctive norms). Using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Intention to Seek Counseling Inventory (ISCI; Psychological and Interpersonal Concerns subscale), the UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLALS), the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46 (CMNI-46; Emotional Control subscale), the Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised (MRNI; Restrictive Emotionality subscale), and the Short Social Desirability Scale (SSDS), the authors provided evidence for the convergent, discriminant, criterion, and incremental validity of the M2PIN, as well as its reliability. Additionally, 3 significant interaction effects involving the M2PIN subscales and measures of restrictive emotionality and emotional control provide support for the notion that an incongruence between external norms (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) and personal norms concerning emotional inexpressiveness was associated with greater loneliness, whereas congruence was associated with greater life satisfaction.

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