The Influence of Race and Gender on Pain Management: A Systematic Literature Review

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Racial and gender disparities in health are well documented in health science literature. Racial minorities and women are known to receive disproportionately poorer quality of health care when compared to non-Hispanic Whites. It is unknown why women and particular racial and ethnic minorities are more susceptible to experience disparities in patient care. Moreover, with pain being the most common complaint for those entering the healthcare system, gaps in understanding the potential relationship between the nurse provider's gender and/or race and ethnicity and pain management deserve exploration. A systematic literature review has been conducted to explore the current state of knowledge related to providers, health disparities, and pain. Much of the research to date has focused on the provider–patient relationship to health disparities in pain management. Further research is needed to examine how provider–patient interactions may influence patient outcomes, satisfaction, adherence and disparities in health.

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