Two cDNA clones which appear to encode different subunits of NAD+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH; EC 220.127.116.11) were identified by homology searches from the Arabidopsis EST database. These cDNA clones were obtained and sequenced; both encoded full-length messages and displayed 82.7% nucleotide sequence identity over the coding region. The deduced amino acid sequences revealed preprotein lengths of 367 residues, with an amino acid identity of 86.1%. Genomic Southern blot analysis showed distinct single-copy genes for both IDH subunits. Both IDH subunits were expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibodies were raised to each subunit. The Arabidopsis cDNA clones were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants which were deficient in either one or both of the yeast NAD+-dependent IDH subunits. The Arabidopsis cDNA clones failed to complement the yeast mutations; although both IDH-I and IDH-II were expressed at detectable levels, neither protein was imported into the mitochondria.