The red colour of pepper fruits is determined by the y+ dominant allele and the yellow colour by the y recessive allele. The capsanthin-capsorubin synthase (CCS) gene is activated specifically during the final stages of pepper fruit ripening. RFLP and specific-PCR polymorphisms derived from the CCS gene were analysed in a F2 progeny of a red by yellow-fruited cross. They cosegregated completely with fruit colour. Our results support the hypothesis that the yellow phenotype might result from a deletion of the CCS gene. These specific markers were integrated into the genetic map and will be useful for marker assisted plant breeding.