An Analysis of Rescue Medication Utilization from a 3-Month, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain Treated with Single-Entity, Twice-Daily, Extended-Release Hydrocodone

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To evaluate the durability of pain relief provided by a new formulation of single-entity, hydrocodone extended-release (ER) (Zohydro® ER) throughout the 12-hour dosing interval by examining patterns of rescue medication use.


Phase 3, enriched enrollment, randomized withdrawal study with an open-label, conversion/titration phase (≤6 weeks) followed by a placebo-controlled, double-blind treatment phase (12 weeks).


Fifty-seven study sites in the United States enrolled patients.


One hundred and fifty-one opioid-experienced subjects with moderate to severe chronic low back pain who were treated with hydrocodone ER once every 12 hours.


Post hoc analysis of rescue medication use by frequency and distribution of use following the morning and evening dose of hydrocodone ER.


No rescue medication was used following the morning or evening dose of hydrocodone ER during 36.0% and 76.7% of the dosing days, respectively. Time distribution of rescue medication use showed that 79.3% of all rescue medication doses were administered following the morning dose, with the highest rate of usage (46.2%) occurring 4–8 hours postdose, followed by 18.7% and 14.4% usage 0–4 and 8–12 hours postdose, respectively. Examination of the three 4-hour intervals following the evening dose of hydrocodone ER revealed similar minimal rescue medication use (5.6–8.2%).


End-of-dose failure was not observed based on the use of rescue medication after administration of single-entity, twice daily, hydrocodone ER capsules (Zohydro ER).

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