Translation, Adaptation, and Validation of Hindi Version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain for Use in India

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Abstract

Objectives. This study translates the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) into Hindi and examines the psychometric properties of the translated version (Hindi PCS [Hi-PCS]) in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP).

Methods. Forward and backward translations were performed from English to Hindi according to standard methodology. A final version was evaluated by a committee of clinical experts and Hi-PCS was then pilot-tested in 10 patients with CLBP. Cross-cultural validation of the resulting adapted Hi-PCS was done by administering Hi-PCS at baseline to 100 patients with CLBP (≥ 12 weeks pain) who were able to read and write in Hindi, and re-administering Hi-PCS after 3 days. Construct validity was assessed using factor analysis. Psychometric properties including internal consistency; test-retest reliability; and convergent validity with pain severity, functional disability, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were also assessed.

Results. Principal component analysis observed a three-factor structure, which explained 58% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis elicited the best fit as judged by the model fit indices. Hi-PCS as a whole was deemed to be internally consistent (Cronbach’s α = 0.76). Intraclass correlation coefficient for the Hi-PCS is 0.923 (95% CI: 0.875–0.953). Hi-PCS was moderately correlated with pain intensity (r = 0.651) and functional disability (r = 0.352), and negatively correlated with QoL (r = –0.380).

Conclusions. PCS translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Hindi demonstrated good factor structure along adequate psychometric properties and could be recommended for use in CLBP research in India.

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