It has been reported that personality traits are related to several neurotransmitters. However, the association between personality traits and the central nervous system remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the relationships between a polymorphism involving a variable number of tandem repeats in the promoter of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-VNTR) gene and personality traits, as assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Promoter VNTRs in the MAOA were genotyped in 558 healthy Japanese individuals. Females homozygous for high-activity allele (4/4) had significantly higher persistence scores than those homozygous for the low-activity allele (3/3) (p = 0.012, ANOVA). Meanwhile no difference in persistence was found between 3 and 4 allele in males. There were no differences between other scores of TCI subscales and MAOA-VNTR polymorphism. Our results suggest a gender-specific contribution of MAOA-VNTR polymorphism to persistence scores.