2-DPMP (desoxypipradrol, 2-benzhydrylpiperidine, 2-phenylmethylpiperidine) and D2PM (diphenyl-2-pyrrolidin-2-yl-methanol, diphenylprolinol): A preliminary review

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Abstract

2-DPMP (desoxypipradrol, 2-benzhydrylpiperidine, 2-phenylmethylpiperidine) and D2PM (diphenyl-2-pyrrolidin-2-yl-methanol, diphenylprolinol) are psychoactive substances, sold primarily over the Internet and in ‘head’ shops as ‘legal highs’, ‘research chemicals’ or ‘plant food’. Originally developed in the 1950s for the treatment of narcolepsy and ADHD, 2-DPMP's use soon became very limited. Recreational use of 2-DPMP and D2PM appears to have started in March 2007, but only developed slowly. However, in the UK their popularity grew in 2009, increasing rapidly during summer 2010. At this time, there were many presentations to UK Emergency Departments by patients complaining of undesirable physical and psychiatric effects after taking 2-DPMP. In spring 2011 there were similar presentations for D2PM. Recreational use of these drugs has been reported only occasionally in on-line user fora. There is little scientifically-based literature on the pharmacological, physiological, psychopharmacological, toxicological and epidemiological characteristics of these drugs. Here we describe what is known about them, especially on their toxicity, including what we believe to be the first three deaths involving the use of 2-DPMP in August 2010. There are no international controls imposed on 2-DPMP or D2PM. However, a ban on their UK importation was imposed in November 2011 and they became Class C drugs on 13 June 2012. It is critical that any other cases, including non-fatal overdoses, are documented so that a scientific evidence-base can be established for them.

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