Lines of evidence have demonstrated that early-life malnutrition is highly correlated with neurodevelopment and adulthood neuropsychiatric disorders, while some findings are conflicting with each other. In addition, the biological mechanisms are less investigated. We systematically reviewed the evidence linking early-life nutrition status with neurodevelopment and clinical observations in human and animal models. We summarized the effects of special nutritious on neuropsychiatric disorders and explored the underlying potential mechanisms. The further understanding of the biological regulation of early-life nutritional status on neurodevelopment might shed light on precision nutrition at an integrative systems biology framework.