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Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases that play essential roles in cell survival, energy metabolism, inflammation, and aging; therefore, sirtuins are potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, cancer, inflammatory and metabolic disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.Available evidence provides the basis for hypothesizing that sirtuins 1, 2, and 3 (SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT3) may have a mechanistic role subserving mood disorders (i.e. downregulation) and associated co-morbidity (e.g. metabolic disorders). Specifically, the domains of general cognitive processes, as well as cognitive emotional processing may be particularly relevant to sirtuin physiology.Given the role of sirtuins in the perpetuation of circadian rhythmicity, and evidence of dysfunctional circadian cycling in mood disorders, sirtuins may be an underlying etiological factor that links circadian rhythm functionality with mood disorders.Caloric restriction, and caloric restriction mimetics (e.g. resveratrol) are all capable of upregulating sirtuin isoforms implicated in stress response syndromes. Repurposing existing treatments and/or discovery of novel agents capable of modulating sirtuin physiology may represent genuinely novel approaches for trans-diagnostic domains affected in mood disorders and other brain-based illnesses.Sirtuins have a mechanistic role subserving mood and metabolic disorders.Sirtuins alter brain substrates relevant to domains comprising mood disorders.Sirtuins present novel pharmacological targets in mood disorders.