Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stressor-related disorder that develops in a subset of individuals exposed to a traumatic experience. Factors associated with vulnerability to PTSD are still not fully understood. PTSD is frequently comorbid with various psychiatric and somatic disorders, moderate response to treatment and remission rates. The term “theranostics” combines diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy and offers targeted therapy based on specific analyses. Theranostics, combined with novel techniques and approaches called “omics”, which integrate genomics, transcriptomic, proteomics and metabolomics, might improve knowledge about biological underpinning of PTSD, and offer novel therapeutic strategies. The focus of this review is on metabolomic and glycomic data in PTSD. Metabolomics evaluates changes in the metabolome of an organism by exploring the set of small molecules (metabolites), while glycomics studies the glycome, a complete repertoire of glycan structures with their functional roles in biological systems. Both metabolome and glycome reflect the physiological and pathological conditions in individuals. Only a few studies evaluated metabolic and glycomic changes in patients with PTSD. The metabolomics studies in PTSD patients uncovered different metabolites that might be associated with psychopathological alterations in PTSD. The glycomics study in PTSD patients determined nine N-glycan structures and found accelerated and premature aging in traumatized subjects and subjects with PTSD based on a GlycoAge index. Therefore, further larger studies and replications are needed. Better understanding of the biological basis of PTSD, including metabolomic and glycomic data, and their integration with other “omics” approaches, might identify new molecular targets and might provide improved therapeutic approaches.