Discrimination between worry and anxiety among cancer patients: development of a brief cancer-related worry inventory

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A psychometric scale for assessing cancer-related worry among cancer patients, called the Brief Cancer-Related Worry Inventory (BCWI), was developed.


A cross-sectional questionnaire survey for item development was conducted of 112 Japanese patients diagnosed with breast cancer, and test-retest validation analysis was conducted using the data from another prospective study of 20 lung cancer patients. The questionnaire contained 15 newly developed items for cancer-related worry, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, The Impact of Event Scale Revised, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-8.


Exploratory factor analysis of the 15 items yielded a 3-factor structure including (1) future prospects, (2) physical and symptomatic problems and (3) social and interpersonal problems. A second-order confirmatory factor analysis identified a second-order factor called cancer-related worry and confirmed the factor structure with an acceptable fit (chi-square (df=87)=160.16,P=0.001; GFI=0.83; CFI=0.92; RMSEA=0.09). The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were confirmed with the lung cancer sample. Multidimensional scaling found that cancer-related worry is separate from anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.


Our study succeeded in developing and confirming the validity and reliability of a BCWI. The study also confirmed the discriminable aspects of cancer-related worry from anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms.

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