In psycho-oncology care, steps toward dissemination and implementation of evidence-based treatments (EBTs) have not been made. For this to change, factors associated with real-world dissemination and implementation must be identified. In the community, providers, their organizations, and patients are key stakeholders.Method:
A focused review of literatures in continuing education, dissemination, and implementation of mental health services is provided.Results:
Early-career providers are most ready to implement as they have greater openness and more positive attitudes toward EBTs. Current continuing education practices to teach EBTs have limited effectiveness. Instruction using interactive strategies tailored to therapists' clinical needs and the provision of post-education consultation is needed. There is tension between EBT delivery with fidelity and the necessity for adaptation. EBT service provision is the key outcome of implementation, and documenting such is important to patients, providers, and organizations.Conclusion:
A multilevel conceptual framework, Setting, Therapist, Education, imPlementation, and Sustainability, is offered and provides directions for dissemination and sustainable implementation. Guidelines from the Commission on Cancer of the American College of Surgeons and the American Society of Clinical Oncology underscore the timeliness of the proposed framework to move EBTs from the research settings where they were developed to the practice settings where they are needed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.