|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of maternal dietary canthaxanthin (CX) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) supplementation on antioxidant status and calcium-phosphate metabolism of progeny ducks. Cherry Valley duck breeders (38 wk old) were fed either a control diet or the same diet plus CX (6 mg/kg) and 25-OH-D3 (0.069 mg/kg) for 32 weeks. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 were conducted with progeny ducks hatched from eggs laid by duck breeder hens at 54, 62, and 70 wk of age, respectively. Progeny ducks from both maternal treatments were fed with the same NRC (1994) vitamin regimen starter (1 to 14 d) and finisher (15 to 35 d) diets in experiments 1 and 2, and fed with the same high vitamin regimen starter (1 to 14 d) and finisher (15 to 35 d) diets in experiments 3. High vitamin regimen had higher levels of all vitamins, except biotin, than the NRC (1994) vitamin regimen. In experiment 1, maternal CX and 25-OH-D3 increased (P < 0.05) shank pigmentation and tibiotarsus ash and tended to decrease (P < 0.1) liver total superoxide dismutase activity (T-SOD) of one-day-old progeny ducks; and increased (P < 0.05) shank pigmentation, decreased (P = 0.05) liver protein carbonyl, and tended to increase (P < 0.1) liver total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of 14-day-old progeny ducks. In experiment 2, maternal CX and 25-OH-D3 increased (P < 0.05) shank pigmentation and liver T-AOC and decreased (P < 0.05) liver protein carbonyl of one-day-old progeny ducks, but increased (P < 0.05) the serum phosphate level of 14-day-old progeny ducks. In experiment 3, maternal CX and 25-OH-D3 increased (P < 0.05) shank pigmentation of one-, 14-, and 35-day-old progeny ducks and tended to increase (P < 0.1) liver T-SOD and tibiotarsus ash, but decrease (P < 0.1) liver malondialdehyde of one-day-old progeny ducks. It can be concluded that progeny dietary high vitamin regimen could partially prevent maternal CX-derived progeny shank pigmentation from bleaching. Maternal CX- and 25-OH-D3-derived effects are influenced by the hen's age and progeny's dietary vitamin regimen.