|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Enriched melatonin (MEL) has been found in the mammalian intestine and has been recently demonstrated to alleviate rodent colitis. In this study, the effect of MEL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal inflammations was investigated in new chicken hatchlings. The chicks were fed with a diet supplemented with MEL (12.5 mg/day) from D1 to D10. Meanwhile, the chicks in the LPS or MEL + LPS groups were injected with LPS (10 mg/kg BW, i.p.) at D10. LPS treatment for 6 h increased the expression of IL-6, IL-4, caspase-3 mRNAs and TUNEL-positive cell populations, but decreased populations of the goblet and PCNA+ cells, IgA production and the expression of MUC2 mRNA in the duodenum. Compared with the LPS group, MEL pre-feeding alleviated duodenal inflammation and decreased the expression of TNF-α mRNAs by 23.6% (P = 0.004), IL-6 mRNAs by 69.4% (P = 0.001), IL-4 mRNAs by 4.1% (P = 0.824) and caspase-3 mRNAs by 45.8% (P < 0.001). Conversely, MEL pre-feeding attenuated the LPS-induced changes of IgA production by 161.6% (P = 0.013) and PCNA+ cell populations by 172.1% (P < 0.001) in the duodenum. TLR4 mRNA was also up-regulated by LPS treatment but down-regulated by MEL pre-feeding. In conclusion, dietary MEL could attenuate LPS-induced chick duodenal inflammation by down-regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines, promoting epithelial cell proliferation, improving the immunological barrier and inhibiting epithelial apoptosis via the mediation of TLR4.