The study was conducted to distinguish the effect of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) levels on the community diversity and structure of the cecal microbiota in meat duck based on 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. In total, 525 1-d-old ducklings were fed diets (105 ducklings, 7 pens of 15 ducklings, on each diet) containing five levels of NPP (0.22, 0.34, 0.40, 0.46, and 0.58%) for 21 days. The results showed that dietary NPP levels linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.05) 21 d body weight, 1 to 21 d feed intake and NPP intake, and contrarily, linearly decreased (P < 0.05) β-diversity of cecal microbial population in ducks. β-diversity analyses showed that microbiota clustering based on dietary NPP levels occured, with 0.22% NPP groups distinctly different from the 0.46% and 0.58% NPP group samples. Moreover, dietary NPP levels could change the relative abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria (linear, P < 0.05), genera Eubacterium coprostanoligenes (quadratic, P < 0.05), Ruminococcaceae UCG-014 (quadratic, P < 0.05) and Subdoligrannulum (linear, P < 0.05), and Lachnospiraceae family (quadratic, P < 0.05) in cecal microbiota of ducks. Increasing the dietary NPP level influenced the cecal microbiota and positively affected the growth of meat ducks.