Carcass and meat quality characterization of indigenous and improved variety of chicken genotypes

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A study was conducted to examine four genotypes of chicken for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. From each genotype, 20 birds were slaughtered at their respective age of maturity. Breast and thigh muscles were evaluated for meat quality characteristics. Transport loss and carcass weight were highest in the white commercial broiler (WBR) and lowest in Aseel (ASL) and Indbro Aseel (ASR). Dressing percentage ranged between 66.41 and 72.56 and was not significantly different among genotypes. The yield of various cut-up parts for different genotypic birds was significantly different (P < 0.05). Highest percent yield for breast (29.15), thigh (15.57), drumstick (13.82) and wings (18.44) were observed in WBR, rainbow rooster (RR), ASR and rainbow rooster Plus (RRP), respectively. Giblet % was highest in RR and meat:bone ratio of thigh portion was highest in WBR. Higher ultimate pH was recorded for RR, RRP, and WBR, and higher water-holding capacity was detected in ASL and ASR. Further, bound water was higher in RR, RRP, and WBR, and free water was maximum in ASL and ASR. A significant (P < 0.05) higher shear force was observed in ASL and higher muscle fiber diameter in WBR. Cooking yield did not differ significantly among genotypes. The breast meat from ASL showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher redness value and WBR showed the lower redness. Further, ASL and ASR meats were darker and red in color than broiler meat. Meat from two indigenous birds (ASL and ASR) had significantly (P < 0.05) lower fat content compared to broilers and other crosses. ASL gave a slightly firmer meat as liked by consumers. The sensory evaluation showed breast meat from RR birds and ASL birds had better flavor scores than other birds. These results indicated that meat of indigenous chickens (ASL and ASR) has some unique features over commercial fast-growing birds that would increase their demand by consumers who prefer chewy, low-fat chicken meat.

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