To systematically review the recent evidence on physical therapy (PT) diagnosis, prognosis, and intervention of congenital muscular torticollis to inform the update to the PT management of congenital muscular torticollis evidence-based clinical practice guideline.Methods:
From 2012 to 2017, 7 databases were searched for studies that informed PT diagnosis, prognosis, or intervention of infants and children with congenital muscular torticollis. Studies were appraised for risk of bias and quality.Results:
Twenty studies were included. No studies informed PT diagnosis. Fourteen studies informed prognosis, including factors associated with presence of a sternocleidomastoid lesion, extent of symptom resolution, treatment duration, adherence to intervention, cervical spine outcomes, and motor outcome. Six studies informed intervention including stretching frequency, microcurrent, kinesiology tape, group therapy, and postoperative PT.Conclusions:
New evidence supports that low birth weight, breech presentation, and motor asymmetry are prognostic factors associated with longer treatment duration. Higher-level evidence is emerging for microcurrent intervention.